Jonah – Meaning “dove”

I. His Character

1.      Sanctified in spots, “mixture of strength and weakness”

2.      Self-willed, 1:1-3

3.      Godly, 1:9

4.      Courageous, 1:12

5.      Prayerful, 2:1-9

6.      Obedient after chastisement, 3:3&4

7.      Bigoted and selfish, 3:4-10;4:1


Key word - “Revival”

Key verse - 2:8&9; 4:2

Key chapter - 3 Revival !!!!

Division of book -   The first commission of Jonah, chapter 1&2

                               The second commission of Jonah chapter 3&4


II. History

a.       Some regard this book as fiction but Jesus regarded it as historical fact.

(Matt. 12:39-41).

b.      Jesus calls it, a sign of His resurrection, the fish, repentance of Nineveh, judgment day, and His resurrection all in the same category.

c.       Jonah wrote the story and didn’t water down his disobedient.

d.      The word translated “whale” should be translated great fish or sea-monster.

e.       There is no record of their repentant only their exploits, no stories recorded of their humiliation.

III. Nineveh

a.       The capital of Assyrian empire.

b.      Assyrian empire was a world power for about 300 years.

c.        It started its rise to power about the time Israel split into two kingdoms, close to Solomon reign.

 IV. The Assyrians kings and their dealings with the Jews.

1.      Shalmaneser II, 860-825. Began to cut off Israel.

2.      Adad-nirari, 808-783. Took tribute from Israel, Jonah’s visit.

3.      Tiglath-pileser III, 747-727. Deported most of Israel.

4.      Shalmaneser IV, 727-722. Besieged Samaria.

5.      Sennacherib 705-681. Invaded Judah. Isaiah

6.      Esar-haddon, 681-668. Very powerful.

7.      Assur-banipal, 668-628. Most powerful and brutal, NAHUM?

                        8.  Two other things reign 628-607 until the empire fall in 607.

 Jonah was called to prolong the life of a nation that was going to destroy his own country. Maybe that was why he went the other way. Jonah was from Gath-hepher, and lived during the reign of Jeroboam II, 790-749. This was not a nation but a Gentile nation.

Jonah has certainly been a sign of Christ referred to many times, 3 days in fish, resurrected after 3 days, Matt. 12:39-41.

Conclusion: Jonah’s anger and like of compassion is contrasted to God’s love and grace.