I.  Figurative or allegorical.

II. Background or history.

a.       A contemporary of Isaiah and Micah.

b.      He was a prophet to the Northern Kingdom.

c.       Some 200 years before Hosea’s times, ten tribes out of the twelve of Davidic Kingdom had seceded and set up their own independent kingdom. The golden calf was introduced as the official national god. God had sent the prophets Elijah, Elisa, Jonah, Amos, and now Hosea. But the people refuse o repent and turn from their awful sin of idolatry.

d.      He preached the same message to Israel, (10 tribes to the north) which  Jeremiah would later preach to the Southern kingdom of Judah.

e.       Kings of Israel the Northern Kingdom.

1.      Jeroboam II, 790-749. A reign of great prosperity. Hosea begins.

2.      Zechariah ,748. Reigned 6 months. Was killed by Shallum.

3.      Shallum, reigned 1 month. Was killed by Menahem.

4.      Menahem, 748-738. Very, very cruel. Was a puppet of Assyria.

5.      Pekahiah, 748-730. Was killed by Hosea. Galilee captivity, 734.

6.      Hosea, 730-721. Fall Samaria 721, end of Kingdom.

III. Culture

a.       Idolatry is a way of life for these people.

1.      Judah to the south had not sunk as deep into worship as Israel had and was spared for another 100 years.

2.      1st, 2nd, 3rd. Chapters relate the sad story of a man and his family. Children’s names Jezreel, after the of city Jezreel where the bloody brutality of II Kings 10:1-14 took place, which meant the hour of punishment has come. “Lo-ruhamah” the second child’s name means, “No more mercy”. The third’s name was “Lo-ammi” which meant “no longer my people” Hosea then repeated their names without the Lo (not) predicting the day when other nations would be called the People of God.

3.      Gilgal was a sanctuary for idol worship, thought to have been about 7 miles N.W. of Bethel. “Bet-aven” another name for Beth, the main idol center for the Northern kingdom, 4:15.

4.      Ephraim, the largest of the Northern Kingdom was in the most central location, 4:17

b.      Immoral lifestyle.

1.      Young women are harlots.

2.      Married women entertain other men.

3.      Men spent time with the prostitutes.


IV. Contracting the spiritual to the physical, marriage we can see;

a.       God the Father, husband, Israel wife.

b.      Wife goes after other men, Israel goes after other gods.

c.       The faithfulness of Hosea, the faithfulness of God.

d.      The undying love of Hosea, the undying love of God.

e.       Hosea pleaded with her to repent, God pleads with Israel to repent.

f.        Gomer was redeem for 15 pieces of silver, chapter 3 (indicating she was worthless). This is a picture of God’s redemption of all man kind through Jesus, which is also worthless, because they are “spiritually dead” and God is a Spirit.



Hose means “salvation”.

Key verses: 4:1, 11:7-9

Key chapter: 4

Key fact: 4:6

This book can be divided as follows:

1. The adulterous wife and faithful husband 1-3;

2. The adulterous Israel and the faithful God 4-14.


Relate to our days.

People in authority were pleased with the sins of others, same as our days,

verse 7:3, verses 4-7 reveals their sins.

When troubles came they went to the Assyrain’s, (5:13; 7:11) instead of God.

Americans goes to the A C L U seeking the laws to be passed in America.

Chapter 11:8. How can I give you up Ephraim…I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely, for my anger has turned away from him.

God will, will, will, through Jesus Christ will forgive anyone if they will only turn to Him. His love is so great he had to provide a way for all mankind to be heal.

If a person “Sow the wind” they will “Reap the whirlwind”. Gal. 6:7.


V. God issued a covenant on Mount Sinai to Moses whereby; He would be their God and protect them if they would obey His commandments. He promised to bless them in the land and their agricultural would prosper. If not, His judgments would be against their corps and their borders. (Lev. 26; Deut. 28). The pre-exile prophets came as messages to accuse the nation of breaking their covenant warn of the impending judgment to come.

 Of course many details of their announcements of judgments correspond to the covenant curses in those chapters. The post exile prophets made it very clear that Gods would restore His people according to the same principles that had governed them in their forefather’s relationship to Him. Of course this is talking about the promises made to Abraham through David.

VI. Hosea (11:11) and Micah (7:15) foresaw a second exodus bondage. Several prophets also predicted the revival of the Davidic Empire and preeminence over the surrounding nations. (9:11-12; Micah 5:4-9) Israel’s return to power would culminate in the willing worship. (Micah 4:1-3; Zephaniah 3:9). This is something that never happens during the Davidic reign.

VII. Prophetic Teaching.

1.      Some have come to pass while other are still to be fulfilled.

2.      Zephaniah’s vision of the Lord’s Day includes the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians and judgment (1:4-13) on the surround nation of his days. (2:4-15), the restoration of God people, (3:11-20).

3.      To properly under this book one must understanding two things.


First, don’t write these prophets off as only wishful thinkers. With the partial fulfillment one must realized the writers to be men of God.

Second, one must not overlook the historical fulfillment and topological nature of most prophets.